Глоссарий (Медицинская энциклопедия)

Palliative treatment
Treatment aimed at the relief of pain and symptoms of disease but not intended to cure the disease.
Pap (Papanicolaou) smear
A test to detect cancer of the cervix.
Paracentesis
Removing fluid from the abdomen using local anesthesia and needle and syringe.
Pathological fracture
A break in a bone usually caused by cancer or some disease condition.
Pathology
The study of disease by the examination of tissues and body fluids under the microscope. A doctor who specializes in pathology is called a pathologist.
Petechiae
Tiny areas of bleeding under the skin, usually caused by a low platelet count.
Phlebitis
A painful inflammation of the veins.
Photosensitivity
Extreme sensitivity to the sun, leaving the patient prone to sunburns. This can be a side effect of some cancer drugs and radiation.
Placebo
An inert substance often used in clinical trials for comparison.
Platelet (Plt)
Cells in the blood that are responsible for clotting.
Platelet count
The number of platelets in a blood sample.
Polyp
A growth of tissue protruding into a body cavity, such as a nasal or rectal polyp. Polyps may be benign or malignant.
Port – Implanted
A catheter connected to a quarter-sized disc that is surgically placed just below the skin in the chest or abdomen. The tube is inserted into a large vein or artery directly into the bloodstream. Fluids, drugs, or blood products can be infused, and blood can be drawn through a needle that is stuck into the disc. Examples: Port-o-cath, Infusaport, Lifeport.
Port – Peritoneal
A catheter connected to a quarter-sized disc that is surgically placed in the abdomen. The catheter is inserted to deliver chemotherapy to the peritoneum (abdominal cavity).
Primary tumor
The original cancer site. For example, breast cancer that has spread to the bone is still called breast cancer.
Progesterone
One of the female hormones produced by the ovaries.
Progesterone-receptor assay
A test that determines if breast cancer is stimulated by the hormone progesterone.
Prognosis
The projected outcome of a disease; the life expectancy.
PSA (Prostate-specific antigen)
A marker used to determine prostate disease; it may be benign or malignant.
Prosthesis
Artificial replacement of a missing body part.
Protocol
A treatment plan.
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