Глоссарий (Медицинская энциклопедия)

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
AIDS is a viral disease that destroys the body's ability to fight infections, leaving the body susceptible to many other diseases. AIDS is also known as Autoimmune Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Acute
A sudden onset of symptoms or disease.
Adenocarcinoma
See Carcinoma.
Adenoma
A benign tumor made up of glandular tissue. For example, an adenoma of the pituitary gland may cause it to produce abnormal amounts of hormones.
Adrenal glands
Two small organs near the kidneys that release hormones.
AFP (Alpha fetoprotein)
A tumor marker.
Alopecia
The loss of hair, which may include all body hair as well as scalp hair.
Analgesic
Any drug that relieves pain. Aspirin and acetaminophen are mild analgesics.
Anemia
A condition in which a decreased number of red blood cells may cause symptoms including tiredness, shortness of breath, and weakness.
Anorexia
The loss of appetite.
Antibody
A substance formed by the body to help defend it against infection.
Antiemetic agent
A drug that prevents or controls nausea and vomiting.
Antifungal agent
A drug used to treat fungal infections.
Antigen
Any substance that causes the body to produce natural antibodies.
Antineoplastic agent
A drug that prevents, kills, or blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells.
Arrhythmia
An irregular heartbeat.
Aspiration
The process of removing fluid or tissue, or both, from a specific area.
Autoimmunity
A condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly fights and rejects the body's own tissues.
Axilla
The armpit.
Axillary nodes
Lymph nodes – also called lymph glands – found in the armpit (axilla).
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